Clinical cardiology is the branch of internal medicine that deals with malfunctions and disorders related to heart in humans and animals. The field includes diagnosis and treatment of heart failure, congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology. It is manly dependent on the circulatory system or circulatory process also called the cardiovascular system. In circulation process, Blood carries oxygen and nutrients from your heart to the rest of the body through a complex network of arteries, arterioles, and capillaries whereas the deoxygenated blood is carried back to your heart through venules and veins. The physicians who are specialized in this field are called cardiologists. Clinical Cardiology plays a major role in coordination of research in medical diagnosis, cardiovascular medicine and cardiovascular surgery.
Heart diseases are the disorders that affect your heart. Diseases under the heart disease umbrella include blood vessel diseases, such as coronary artery disease; heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias); and heart defects you're born with i.e. congenital heart defects, Rheumatic heart disease, cardiovascular diseases, Ischemic heart disease, Heart generation and many more.
Cardiac nursing is a nursing specialty that works with patients suffering from various cardiovascular conditions. Heart nurses help treat conditions such as unstable angina, cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, and cardiac dysrhythmia under the guidance of a cardiologist. Heart nurses perform postoperative surgical care, stress testing, cardiac monitoring, blood vessel monitoring, and health evaluation. Heart research and innovative work prompts fast clinical changes which require nurses and allied experts to be refreshed with the most recent information on treatment and care. In this session, Heart Summit 2020 invites the researchers to submit their works on the topics but are not limited to Acute and Chronic Heart Failure; Improving Care in Hospital and Community; Coping with Patient and Family Issues at End of Life; Prevention and Support in Transplant, among others.
Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the most usual type of heart surgery. CABG boosts blood flow to the heart. Surgeons make use of CABG to treat people who have critical coronary heart disease (CHD). For the heart to work well, blood should flow in only one direction. The heart's valves help to make this possible. Healthy valves open and close in a specific way as the heart pumps blood. A Thoracic Surgeon is practicing the field of medicine involved in the surgical treatment of diseases affecting organs inside the chest (the thorax). Thoracic surgeons perform surgery for conditions affecting the lungs, chest wall and diaphragm. Thoracic Surgeons do not perform surgery for conditions of the heart and the major vessels in the chest. These operations are performed by Cardiac Surgeons.
Healthy eating habits don’t focus on one type of nutrients or one type of food to promote healthy heart. Healthy eating habits rely on a combination of foods chosen regularly, over time. At their core, atherosclerosis and hypertension are types of cardiovascular diseases that affect the developed world where both atherosclerosis and hypertension are affected by diet from nutritional point of view.
Some of the treatments in patients who have been treated for cancer may cause lasting damage to the heart. As a result of chemotherapy or radiation, cardiovascular complications such as premature blockage of arteries of the heart, heart rhythm disorders and heart failure may develop. Chemotherapeutic cardiac toxicity is mainly classified into two types: Type 1 chemotherapy-related left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction and Type 2 chemotherapy-mediated Cardiotoxicity.
Cardiomyopathy is a most common group of diseases that affect the heart muscles. In this, the heart muscle becomes rigid, enlarged or thick. In this condition, heart is less able to circulate the blood to all the body parts and maintain a normal electrical rhythm. This can lead to heart failure or irregular heartbeats called arrhythmias. It means that your heart beats too quickly, too slowly, or with an irregular pattern. In turn, heart failure can cause fluid to build up in the legs, ankles, lungs, feet or abdomen. The Typical perilous danger in patients with cardiomyopathies is sporadic heart rate. When the heart beats faster than normal, it is called tachycardia. When the heart beats too slowly, it is called bradycardia. The most common type of arrhythmia is atrial fibrillation, which causes an irregular and fast heartbeat. Many factors can affect your heart's rhythm, such as having had a heart attack, smoking, congenital heart defects, and stress. Some substances or medicines may also cause arrhythmias.
Heart disease is a killer that strikes women than men and is more deadly. Women of all ages can be affected with Heart disease. For younger women, the combination of smoking boosts and birth control pills, heart disease risks by 20 percent. In women risk increases with age, certain things like sedentary lifestyle and overeating can cause accumulation of plaque which leads to clogged arteries later.
Interventional cardiology is a branch of cardiology that deals specifically with the catheter, a small, flexible tube, based treatment to repair damaged or weakened vessels, narrowed arteries, or other affected parts of the heart structure. A large number of procedures can be performed on the heart by catheterization. The main advantage of using the interventional cardiology approach is that it avoids scars, pain, and long post-operative recovery. Additionally, interventional cardiology procedure of primary angioplasty is now the gold standard of care for an acute myocardial infarction.
Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), is the medical name for a heart attack. Myocardial infarction occurs when the flow of the blood stops to a part of the heart causing damage to the heart muscle. This is usually the result of a blockage in one or more of the coronary arteries. This is generally the consequence of a blockage in at least one of the coronary conduits. A blockage can create because of a development of plaque, a substance for the most part made of cholesterol, fat, and cell squander items and the other hazard factors resemble smoking, stoutness, diabetes, liquor consumption, hypertension and horrible eating routine and so forth. Aspirin is an appropriate immediate treatment for a suspected myocardial infarction.
Pediatric cardiology is the branch of cardiology which involves in the treatment of childhood disorder includes both the heart and lungs problems. A person who had received extensive training in diagnosing the pediatric cardiopulmonary disease are called pediatric cardiologist.
Echocardiography is a testing system that makes use of excessive frequency sound waves to produce essential photos of the heart. The photograph is normally called an echocardiogram. This test acknowledges monitoring the functioning of the coronary heart and its valves. The images can help to spot the blood clots within the heart, fluid in the sac across the coronary heart, troubles with the aorta. An echocardiogram is the number one key in figuring out the cardiac fitness. It could also screen heart defects in unborn toddlers.
Cardiac regeneration is reparative stem cells have the capability to restore function to damaged tissue by means of renewing mobile growth in cardiac cells destroyed by way of coronary heart disease or a hastily evolving and debatable discipline of studies. The identification some 12 years ago of progenitor cells that reside within the heart spurred enthusiasm for cell-based regenerative treatment options and about five million people have one or more types of cardiovascular sickness, such as heart attack, angina or heart failure. Heart regeneration approach requires the injection of exogenous cells into the affected vicinity of the heart. These transplanted cells ought to generate and repopulate the injured vicinity with the myocardium. Complementary regenerative strategies to cell transplantation are concurrently being pursued by using the sector.
Obesity increases the risk for heart disease and stroke. But it harms more than just the heart diagnosis and blood vessel system. It's also a major cause of gallstones, osteoarthritis and respiratory problems. In addition to weight gain, heart damaging is a frequent consequence of lifestyle choices such as lack of exercise & a fat laden diet. Obesity also can lead to serious conditions like heart failure, in which your heart can’t pump enough blood to the body.
One having diabetes or pre-diabetes puts one at an increased risk for heart disease and stroke. One can lower its risk by keeping the blood glucose (also called blood sugar), hypertension, and blood cholesterol close to the recommended target numbers the levels suggested by diabetes experts for good health. Stroke and coronary heart disease can be caused by the same problem atherosclerosis. People with diabetes, particularly type-2 diabetes, may have the following conditions that contribute to their risk for developing cardiovascular disease. Diabetes is treatable, but even when glucose levels are under control it greatly increases the risk of heart disease and stroke.
The time period diabetic cardiovascular sickness (DCD) refers to heart disorder that develops in human beings who've diabetes which will increase your threat of coronary heart assault and clot-related stroke (cardiovascular events). Peripheral artery disease — a case wherein your arteries narrow, decreasing blood discharge on your arms and legs — additionally will increase your risk of a cardiovascular accident. Diabetes is a sickness in which the frame's blood glucose (sugar) level is too high and affects your body's ability to supply or use insulin. Commonly, one’s body turns the meals one devours into electricity. Insulin is launched to useful resource shipping this strength to the cells. Insulin acts as a “key".
Pharmacology of vascular endothelium deals with modifications of endothelial cells and the vasculature play a crucial part in the pathogenesis of a wide range of the most dreadful of human diseases, as endothelial cells have the vital role of participating in the maintenance of patent and functional capillaries.
Cardiovascular lethality is harm to the heart by destructive synthetic concoctions. As a major aspect of treatment, poisons (drugs) which are used to slaughter malignant growth cells may cause cardiac toxicity. In this condition, the typical cells in and around your heart can likewise be killed and this may cause a cardiac arrest.
The Vascular Biology exists as a wide-ranging discipline that includes study of vascular function, structure, growth as well as development. This field comprises investigation at essentially all levels, including studies of molecules, cells, organs also intact organisms. Perturbations of vascular function be there involved in various pathophysiological states, with neoplasia, inflammation, aging, neurological diseases, metabolic disorders pulmonary diseases also hypertension.
Molecular and Cellular Cardiology is a new and fast-growing area of cardiovascular medicine that aims to apply molecular biology techniques for the diagnosis, prevention, treatment and mechanistic investigation of cardiovascular disease is a novel and rapid growing area of cardiovascular medicine. As an emerging discipline, it has changed conceptual thinking of cardiovascular development, disease etiology and pathophysiology and advancing knowledge of the mechanisms responsible for both normal and diseased cardiovascular function.
Cardiac rhythm disturbances, sometimes known as heart rhythm disturbances, are abnormal or irregular heartbeats. These disturbances disrupt your heart’s electrical signals and can cause your heart to beat too fast, too slowly, or in an abnormal way
Cardiac perfusion imaging is a non-invasive imaging test that shows how well blood flows through the heart muscle. It can show areas of the heart muscle that aren’t getting enough blood flow. This test is often called a nuclear stress test. It can also show how well the heart muscle is pumping.
The cardiac electrophysiology study (EPS) typically measures the response of the injured or cardiomyopathic myocardium to programmed electrical stimulation on specific pharmacological regimens in order to assess the likelihood that the regimen will successfully prevent potentially fatal sustained ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation in the future. Such studies may also be conducted in the presence of a newly implanted or newly replaced cardiac pacemaker or automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators.
Nuclear Cardiology has played a pivotal role in establishing the diagnosis of heart disease and in the assessment of disease extent and the prediction of outcomes in the setting of coronary artery disease. Nuclear cardiology studies use noninvasive techniques to assess myocardial blood flow, evaluate the pumping function of the heart as well as visualize the size and location of a heart attack. Among the techniques of nuclear cardiology, myocardial perfusion imaging is the most widely used.
A computed tomography scan is commonly called a CT scan or CAT scan is a test that uses X-rays to view specific areas of your body. These scans use safe amounts of radiation to create detailed images of the body, which can help the doctor to detect any problems. A heart, or cardiac, CT scan is used to view your heart and blood vessels. A heart CT scan may also be called a coronary CT angiogram if it’s meant to view the arteries that bring blood to your heart. The test may be called a coronary calcium scan if it’s meant to determine whether there is a buildup of calcium in your heart.
Major surgeries and events, like heart surgery, heart transplant, or heart attack, and less intensive procedures, like a stent intervention, take a toll on your body. To regain your strength and move forward with an active, healthy lifestyle it’s important to have the proper medical monitoring and guidance.
Cardiovascular rehabilitation provides a monitored exercise program to help improve your mobility and quality of life. And it is also beneficial for chronic conditions, such as vascular disease that causes pain or limits your walking ability.
The cardiac imaging also called Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), is a imaging clinical generation for the non-nosy assessment of the interest and structure of the cardiovascular machine with division of Cardiovascular Imaging clarifies the go sectional imaging studies of the heart and vascular system the usage of Computed Tomography (CT or "CAT" scans) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Both CT and MRI are non-invasive imaging modalities which make use of an effective magnetic area, radio waves and a laptop to supply particular pix of the systems inside the coronary heart. It is used to stumble on or reveal cardiac disorder and to evaluate the coronary heart's anatomy and function in patients with congenital coronary heart disease. MUSC operates the most up to date, reducing part imaging equipment to ensure most fulfilling diagnostic first-class in affected person care whilst additionally minimizing patient publicity to ionizing radiation.
The improvement of cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary sidestep procedures has lessened the death rates of these surgeries to generally low positions. For example, repairs of inborn heart deformities are at present assessed to have 4-6% death rates. It is often used to treat complications of ischemic heart diseases like coronary artery bypass grafting, to correct congenital heart disease; or to treat valvular heart disease from various causes, including endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, and atherosclerosis.
Robotic surgery is a type of minimally invasive surgery. “Minimally invasive” means that instead of operating on patients through large incisions, we use miniaturized surgical instruments that fit through a series of quarter-inch incisions.
Thyroid gland issues can result in the cardiac problems. One of the most important reasons to diagnose and treat thyroid disease is to prevent the cardiac conditions that can result from it. Thyroid disease affects the heart either by producing too little thyroid hormone (a condition called hypothyroidism) or too much thyroid hormone (called hyperthyroidism). Both type of thyroid disorders can have a significant effect on the heart. Researchers shows two Thyroid disease – subclinical hypothyroidism and low T3 syndrome – might make heart failure worse.
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a non-surgical procedure used to treat narrowing (stenosis) of the coronary arteries of the heart found in coronary artery disease. After accessing the blood stream through the femoral or radial artery, the procedure uses coronary catheterization to visualize the blood vessels on X-ray imaging. After this, an interventional cardiologist can perform a coronary angioplasty, using a balloon catheter in which a deflated balloon is advanced into the obstructed artery and inflated to relieve the narrowing; certain devices such as stents can be deployed to keep the blood vessel open. Various other procedures can also be performed. When coronary artery disease causes chest pain or a heart attack, percutaneous coronary interventions, such as angioplasty alone or with a stent, can restore blood flow to your heart.
High blood pressure is a serious cardiac disease. The pressure of the blood being pumped through the arteries is higher during hypertension. It often has no warning signs or symptoms. Over time, the constant pressure overload causes accumulating damage that eventually becomes more than circulatory system can handle, often leading to serious health problems. Atherosclerosis is the narrowing of arteries because of plaque buildup on the artery walls. Arteries carry blood from the guts to the remainder of the body. They’re lined with a skinny layer of cells that keep them sleek and permits blood to flow simply. This can be known as epithelium. Coronary artery disease starts once the epithelium becomes broken, permitting the harmful variety of sterol to make up within the artery wall. The body sends a kind of white blood corpuscle to scrub up this sterol, but sometimes, the cells stand still at the affected website.
Digital health is the use of digital information, data and communication technologies to collect share and analyse health information to improve patient health and health care delivery. In spite of the fact that cardiology is on the front line of therapeutic and methodology related advancements, the field is lacking in selection of digital tools in medicinal services delivery. These advances could encourage and propel progressively regular randomized clinical trials (RCTs), which is especially essential since RCTs are ending up progressively costly and complex, are moderate to finish and takes time to implement into practice. Mobile health or mHealth, is the subset of digital health that focuses on the use of mobile and wearable devices and software applications
A progressive healing method is the usage of cell remedy to counteract reverse ventricular remodeling, the substrate of coronary heart failure and arrhythmias following myocardial infarction. Superb cellular tissue regeneration combines a complex mobile and molecular introduction placing that includes stem cell grafting and differentiation, secretion of anti-inflammatory and angiogenic mediators, and proliferation of endogenous cardiac stem cells. Latest healing tactics contain adipose-derived stem cells, coronary heart-derived stem cells, bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells and mesenchymal stem cells, and combos of cells. Clinical trials using mesenchymal stem cells and cardiac derived stem cells were proven to be effective in lowering infarct length and enhancing the contractility of regional walls.
A cardiovascular medicinal drug is specialized in the analysis, prevention, management and remedy of cardiovascular sicknesses. Cardiovascular medicine is a platform for advancement in cardiac care and treatment and scientific paintings within the fields of angiology, high blood pressure and cardiovascular surgical procedure.
Cardiovascular Pharmacology deals with the study of drug action which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the tissue, cell, organ or organism. The interactions affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. The cardiovascular group is studying the connections between salt intake and obesity on blood pressure control mechanisms. These investigators use state of the art molecular, cellular and integrative approaches to study the vascular function and neural control of blood pressure. It elaborates safety data of detrimental effects of new cardiovascular medicines. Cardiovascular Pharmacology of vascular endothelium deals with modifications of endothelial cells and the vasculature play a crucial part in the pathogenesis of a wide range of the most dreadful of human diseases, as endothelial cells have the vital role of participating in the maintenance of patent and functional capillaries.
Implantable devices have been used for decades to treat heart disease. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is a microcomputer that is implanted under the skin of your upper chest area. It is small enough to fit in the palm of your hand. It monitors your heart rate and delivers therapy in the form of small electrical pulses. A cardiac resynchronization therapy implantable cardioverter defibrillator (CRT-D) is a type of specialized ICD used to treat heart failure. Getting a cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) heart device is not an open-heart procedure.
The diagnostic tests are used for identifying the heart function & heart conditions associated with healthy vs. unhealthy individuals in cardiology. Cardiac stress testing is used to assess the cardiac function and also to disclose the evidence of cardiac hypoxia. With a maximal stress test, the level of exercise gets increases until the person's heart rate will not increase highly. Coronary catheterization, echocardiogram, intravascular ultrasound, and the coronary calcium scan are given as the cardiac imaging techniques which can be used in cardiac diagnosis.
Cardiology is a discipline of medicine dealing with heart disorders in addition to elements of the circulatory device. The vicinity consists of medical analysis and remedy of congenital coronary heart defects, coronary artery disorder, heart failure, heart valve ailment, and electrophysiology. It is far probable that cardiology will hold to sub-specialize in the pursuit of technical virtuosity and medical excellence. This example will, first of all, aggravate the escalation of fees and accentuate the hard work shortage.
Medical Tourism is the place where individuals who live in one nation travel to another nation to receive medical, dental and surgical care while in the meantime accepting equivalent to or more prominent consideration than they would have in their very own nation, and are travelling for medicinal care due to affordability, better access or a higher level of quality care.
The current advances in the remedy way are that if CHD is detected at an early stage then it may be handled correctly to extend the survival fee. The successful remedy is much more likely if the sickness is detected at its earliest levels. Our modern-day studies make a specialty of the early detection of CHD so as to halt or opposite the progress of the sickness. The on-going research includes pioneering the use of heart scanning in the early analysis of coronary heart sickness in diabetics, improvement of Nuclear Cardiology techniques for the detection of coronary heart disorder, Drug improvement and assessment of remedies utilized in coronary heart disorder, identity of novel organic markers to expect the presence of heart disease, analysis of ethnic and socio-monetary differences in coronary heart disease chance.
Cardiology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart. Heart is an important muscular organ in humans and other animals, pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. The drugs that are used to treat other disorders in body show a great impact on heart causing various side effects. Hence case reports on cardiac arrest and diseases have a great value and help in advancing and development of treatment strategies.
Telemedicine is the delivery of healthcare services over the telecommunication systems. These services can include health assessments or consultations and it allows experts to evaluate, diagnose and treat patients through the common ways like video calling. It helps the patients to consult and take treatments from experts at any point of time and in a hassle-free way, overcoming the barriers of distance and time. Telemedicine makes access to care more convenient and cost effective.