Neonatology is a branch of pediatrics that consists of the medical care of newborn infants, especially the ill or prematurely born ones. This specialty is usually hospital-based and practiced mainly in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs).The patients of neonatologists are preterm babies, babies with low birth weight, babies suffering from intrauterine growth restriction etc.
Perinatology is a study of obstetrics concerned with the care of the fetus and complicated, high-risk pregnancies. The perinatal period starts at the 20th to 28th week of gestation and ends 1 to 4 weeks after birth. Also known as maternal-fetal medicine, perinatology logically could be an obstetrical and pediatric subspecialty but, in practice, it is part of obstetrics. Perinatology can be compared with neonatology. A highly sick baby might be cared for by a perinatologist before birth and by a neonatologist after birth.
Pediatrics is known as another pioneering study in the general public today and includes the therapeutic care of newborn children, kids and young people. The study of pediatrics is decreasing the mortality rates of the babies and the kids and furthermore to control the spreading of illnesses which will ensure the healthy life of young people and youngsters. It can be seen that the advancement of pediatrics is finished by knowing the different pediatric genetic disorders which is a primary subject for most part required for pediatrics. The fundamental treatment which bargains in pediatrics is advancing the up-gradation of pediatric health in youngsters and newborn children.
A neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) which is also known as an intensive care nursery (ICN), is an intensive care unit which specializes in the care of ill or prematurely born infants. A NICU is typically directed by one or more neonatologists and staffed by nurses, nurse practitioners, pharmacists, physician assistants, resident physicians, respiratory therapists, and dietitians. Many other ancillary disciplines and specialists are available at larger units.
Neonatal nurse practitioners are advanced practice nurses that care for premature babies and sick newborns in intensive care units, emergency rooms, delivery rooms and special clinics. Prematurity is a risk factor that follows early labour, a planned caesarean section or pre-eclampsia.
The section of the hospital that provides sick children with the highest level of medical care is termed as PICU or Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. It unit differs from other parts of the hospital, like the general medical floors. The PICU allows intensive nursing care and continuous monitoring of heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure etc.
The PICU also allows medical personnel to provide therapies that might not be available in other parts of the hospital. Some of these are more intensive typeso of therapies like ventilators (breathing machines) and certain medicines that can be given only under close medical supervision.
A congenital disorder is also known as a congenital disease, deformity or birth defect, or anomaly. This disorder is a condition which exists during birth or may also exist before birth regardless of cause. These defects vary widely in cause and symptoms. Birth defects occur as a result of genetic or environmental factors like errors of morphogenesis, infection, epigenetic modifications on a parental germline, or a chromosomal abnormality. Animal studies and researches have resulted in the solution that these defects may occur due to paternal exposures prior to conception and during pregnancy result in increased risk of certain birth defects and cancers.
Infant mortality or neonatal mortality is the death of young children under the age of 1. These death tolls are measured by the infant mortality rate, which is the number of deaths of children less than one year of age per 1000 live births. Neonatal nursing is a medical subspecialty of nursing that works with newborn infants born with a variety of problems ranging from prematurity, birth defects, infection, and cardiac malformations to surgical problems. The first month of life is regarded as the neonatal period. Neonatal nursing generally involves caring for those infants who experience problems shortly after birth, but also it involves caring for infants who experience long-term problems related to their prematurity or illness after birth.
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common congenital disorder in new-borns. Critical CHD which is defined as requiring surgery or catheter-based intervention in the first year of life occurs in approximately 25% of those with CHD. Although many new-borns with critical CHD are symptomatic and identified soon after birth, others are not diagnosed until after discharge from the birth hospitalization. The risk of morbidity and mortality increases in infants with critical cardiac lesions when there is a delay in diagnosis and timely referral to a tertiary center with expertise in treating these patients.
Some congenital heart problems are now detected when the mother has an ultrasound scan during pregnancy (usually at the 20-week scan), but sometimes they are not found until the birth of the baby. Some rare conditions may not be discovered until the child is older or even an adult.
Fetal nutrition is one of these factors: the complex interaction between genetic growth potential, the ability of the maternal–placental system to transfer nutrients to the fetus and the endocrine environment determine whether the fetus will follow its growth potential during intrauterine life.
Newborn screening is done in infants shortly after birth for listing conditions that are treatable, but not clinically evident in the newborn period. Some of the conditions that are included in newborn screening programs are only detectable after irreversible damage has been done. In some of the cases, sudden death is the first manifestation of a disease. Screening programs are often run by the state or national governing bodies with the goal of screening all the infants born in the jurisdiction.
Neonatal Research is the research to improve the health of prematurely born infants and low birth weight infants. Neonatal Research includes trials of therapies for sepsis, intraventricular hemorrhage, chronic lung disease, and pulmonary hypertension as well as studies of the impact of drug exposure on child and family outcome. There is a need to develop consistent nomenclature describing the type of data we want to capture about medications and their safety and effectiveness in neonates.
The central nervous system of a growing foetus starts with a simple structure called the ‘neural groove’ that folds in to form the ‘neural tube’. This then develops into the spinal cord and brain. By the 28th day after conception, the neural tube should be closed and fused but if it doesn’t close, the result is a neural tube defect. In many of the cases, these defects can be diagnosed during pregnancy with ultrasound scans and, rarely, with other tests such as amniocentesis.
A very common problem in the neonatal intensive care unit is Acute renal failure (ARF). The infant kidney has a very low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) that is maintained by a delicate balance between vasoconstrictor and vasodilatory forces. Under normal conditions, although the low GFR of the new-born kidney is sufficient for growth and development, it limits postnatal renal functional adaptation to endogenous and exogenous stresses.
Neonatal infections may be contracted in the birth canal (perinatal) during delivery, by transplacental transfer in utero or by other means after birth. Some of the infections that are acquired in the neonatal period do not become apparent until much later such as HIV, hepatitis B and malaria. Respiratory tract infections contracted by preterm neonates may continue into childhood or possibly adulthood with long-term effects that limit one's ability to engage in normal physical activities.
Antibiotics can have effective treatments for neonatal infections, especially when the pathogen is quickly identified. While preterm neonates are at a very high risk, full term and post-term infants can also develop infection.
Respiratory distress most commonly presents as one or all of the following physical signs: tachypnea, grunting, nasal flaring, retractions, and cyanosis. A normal respiratory rate in a neonate is between 30 and 60 breaths / min; tachypnea is classified as respiratory rates which are greater than 60 breaths / min.
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a problem which is often seen in premature babies. The condition makes it very hard for the baby to breathe. This disease is mainly caused by a lack of a slippery substance in the lungs called surfactant. This substance helps the lungs to fill with air and keeps the air sacs from deflating. Surfactant is present only when the lungs are fully developed.
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: Fetal and neonatal addiction and withdrawal are as a result of the mother's dependence on drugs during pregnancy. These symptoms develop shortly after birth. These symptoms exhibit loud, high-pitched crying, sweating, yawning and gastrointestinal disturbances.
New-born babies have an immature immune system that renders them at high risk for infection while simultaneously reducing responses to most vaccines, thereby posing challenges in protecting this vulnerable population. A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or reduce the effects of infection by any natural or "wild" pathogen. Many of the vaccines require multiple doses for maximum effectiveness, either to produce sufficient initial immune response or to boost the response that fades over time. Vaccine schedules are developed by governmental agencies or physicians groups to achieve maximum effectiveness using required and recommended vaccines for a locality while minimizing the number of health care system interactions.
Neonatal skin is structurally unique and delicate. Dermatological diseases in neonates are commonly benign and self-limiting, but they may also show signs of underlying systemic disease and can be life threatening. Transient neonatal pustular melanosis is a benign, idiopathic skin condition that is characterized by vesicles, superficial pustules, and pigmented macules. Skin conditions are seen frequently throughout childhood that is from infancy through adolescence. Rashes, birthmarks, and other skin conditions are encountered frequently during infancy. Most new-born rashes are benign and require no treatment.
Newly born babies or neonates are able to follow a light with their eyes and turn toward lights. They are very near-sighted at first, and they can focus best on things that are within 25 cm (10 inches) of their faces. Their vision improves over the first three months. In time, the ability to focus improves and then they see as well as the rest of us. There are a few things that you might be concerned about, with regard to your new-born baby’s eyes: uncoordinated eyes, crossed eyes, and teary eyes.
Eye problems in babies may be congenital (usually genetic or through intrauterine insult) or acquired after birth. The eyes of a neonate should be examined at the first neonatal check. Any baby having an ocular abnormality should be referred to an ophthalmologist specialising in paediatric patients.
Neonatal surgery is the sub-specialty of pediatric surgery that includes the surgical care of newborn infants especially new born who are ill. Neonatal surgeons are the people who perform surgeries involving the chest, abdominal and urological defects. A general surgeon can perform surgery on adults and children, but pediatric surgeons are skilled and have an advance education to perform surgery on infants and very young children.
Obstetricians play a very vital role to minimise the number of neonatal disorders. Prematurity, respiratory dysfunction, birth trauma, congenital malformations, neonatal infection and haemolytic disorders of the new-born and some common neonatal disorders include sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and neonatal jaundice. SIDS is the primary cause of death among infants who are one month to one year old. A healthy start in life is very important to every new-born baby. The first 28 days is the most critical period and this period is known as neonatal period.
As neonatal medicine has become an important research, it is important to discuss the ethical issues involved for the betterment of a new born baby’s health. Learning more about the ethical, legal and social issues on giving intensive care to babies born before 26 weeks helps to improve the neonatal medicine and care.
Neonatal and pediatric palliative care includes all measures taken to lessen suffering at every stage of a child's illness. The team guides children and their families through the hospital experience. The team focuses mainly on providing relief from the symptoms, pain, and stress of a serious illness.
Case Reports is a cumulative summary of a unique patient and his or her illness, including the presenting signs and symptoms, diagnostic studies, treatment course and outcome. They may contain a demographic profile of the patient, but usually describe an unusual or novel appearance. Some case reports also contain a literature review of other similar reported cases. The case report allows for the comparison of two interrelated perspectives, both from patient and physician. By presenting the case report as a coherent story, it allows for a reflection of the patient’s experience of illness as well as the physician’s diagnostic or therapeutic reasoning. Case reports are important in creating and testing the foundation of medical sciences, novel treatments or unusual cases presented in case reports allow for a vast clinical knowledge base.
Regenerative Medicine primarily aims for reestablishing the body functions based on an understanding of the natural procedures - embryology, organogenesis, cell signaling, development factors and stem cell biology. These are the basics in the original formation and normal function of organs and tissues of a living being and so are the vital factors for regeneration. This is a great development in the field of medicine and so now the time has come to know from top to bottom what is the scene behind Stem Cell Banking.
Annually all doctors, physicians, scientists etc. coordinates towards tending to principle issues and future methodologies of Neonatology 2019. This will be most encouraging and informative gathering involving essential care doctors, Neonatologists, Pediatricians, Allopathic doctors, specialists, Nurse experts, Oncologists, Cardiologists and the whole medical group engaged with tolerant care, scientists, researchers, students and patient supporters who are chiefs will come to talk about and wrangle on different parts of the difficulties, dangers and venture openings all through the total data of the World Congress On Child Health & Neonatology. From this event we expect to develop new thoughts from the viewpoints of medical experts. Our target audience involves Neonatologists, Urologists, Oncologists, Neurologists, Cardiologists, Geriatricians, Pediatricians, Nephrologists, Gynecologists, Scientists, Training institutes, Medical devices Companies, Biomedical companies, Pharmaceutical companies, Nutrition companies, Food products organizations, Baby-foods, Hospital equipment companies, etc.
Developmental-Behavioral Neonatology is a unique subspecialty that focuses on a neonate’s strengths and challenges within the context of the family using a bio-psycho-social perspective. Developmental behavioral neonatologists, also known as developmental neonatologists, are medical doctors who possess training and experience to consider, in their assessments and treatments, the medical and psychosocial aspects of neonates and kids developmental and behavioral problems.
A developmental neonatologist is trained to concentrate on the physical, emotional, and psychological development, learning, and behavior from newborns to infants.
The neonatal specialist or neonatologist is considered a well-trained person for analyzing the most well-known diseases and disorders in newborn babies and kids. The other issues involved are breathing trouble, bolstering issues or poor weight pick up. Neonatal diagnosing systems these days are essentially utilized for diagnosing the most intense and difficult hereditary diseases and are similar to pediatric diagnosing systems. Early medical treatment in the early stages is known to be important to save the life of a child. Other than the utilization of different medications, stem cell treatment like the recovery of heart tissue is assuming a noteworthy part. This stem cell treatment is considered as the new strategy to treat the few neonatal heart ailments.
A birth deformity happens when a child is developing inside the mother's body. Most birth complications occur in the midst of the initial 3 months of pregnancy. The different birth defects include resemble heart absconds, liquor syndrome, Down’s syndrome, Fragile X disorder, Anotia/Microtia and some more. For most birth defects, the reason is obscure.
The nutrition that a mother takes during her pregnancy plays a key role in fetal growth and development. Maternal nutrition is directly proportional to the health of the child. Maternal nutrition refers to the nutritional needs of women during the antenatal and postnatal period (i.e., when they are pregnant and breastfeeding) and also to the pre-conceptual period (i.e., adolescence). A healthy diet helps children to grow and learn. It also helps to prevent obesity and other weight-related diseases, such as diabetes. Any kind of alterations in fetal nutrition or endocrine status may result in developmental modifications that permanently change the structure, metabolism and physiology of the offspring, thereby predisposing individuals to metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular diseases in adult life.
Neonatal Pharmacology fundamentally concerns around the investigation of drug dosage in kids. All the more particularly, it is the investigation of the major impacts which appears with the utilization of medication in the variety of age groups like preterm, neonate, infant, child and adolescent. This subspecialty demonstrates age related pharmacokinetic differences contrasts in kids compared with adults. Neonatal Pharmacology plans to dedicate particularly to fundamental, translational and clinical pharmacology in newborn babies.
Neonatal Rehabilitation medicine is primarily used to diagnose, treat, prevent and manage congenital and childhood-onset physical impairments. Neonatal rehabilitation medicine includes medical, physical, functional, psychosocial, and vocational limitations or conditions. The specialized person in this field should have complete training in the identification of functional capabilities and selection of the best rehabilitation intervention strategies, with an understanding of the continuous care and treatment throughout the course of disability. Neonatal rehabilitation is concerned more about building the strength and improving the skills. It’s more about inspiring kids to gain the skills and confidence to reach their full potential. And it’s also about supporting families throughout the rehabilitation period.
Neonatal & Pediatric Cancer is the study of diagnosis and treatment of cancer in children. Leukemia, brain tumors and lymphomas are the most common types of childhood cancer. Neuroblastoma (less common cancer type) is acknowledged as the embryonic malignancy of the sympathetic nervous system arising from neuroblasts (pluripotent sympathetic cells).
World Congress Child Health & Neonatology is respectfully inviting all the Neonatologists, Pediatricians, Researchers, and Student Communities which incorporate the different Business and Academic Delegates from Medical fields and furthermore different Health Care foundations and institutions to join this meeting which will be held at Rome, Italy. This Conference gives a brilliant chance to every one joining here to share and trade the information by building up different Neonatal and Pediatric research coordinated efforts and system administration. Neonatology 2019 is considered as an activity program which will unite the assorted groups working in the field of Neonatology to give a hand for many newborns and youngsters battling with different sicknesses and problems, for improvement and treatment and solutions giving options to save a child.